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History of geography

Critical geography
Though positivist approaches remain important in geography, critical geography arose as a critique of positivism. The first strain of critical geography to emerge was humanistic geography. Drawing on ...
2014-2-21 22:22
The quantitative revolution
The quantitative revolution in geography began in the 1950s. Geographers formulated geographical theories and subjected the theories to empirical tests, usually using statistical methods (especially h ...
2014-2-21 22:22
Regional geography
Regional geography was coined by a group of geographers known as possibilists and represented a reaffirmation that the proper topic of geography was study of places (regions). Regional geographers foc ...
2014-2-21 22:22
Environmental determinism
Environmental determinism is the theory that a people's physical, mental and moral habits are directly due to the influence of their natural environment. Prominent environmental determinists included ...
2014-2-21 22:21
20th century
In the West during the second half of the 19th and the 20th century, the discipline of geography went through four major phases: environmental determinism, regional geography, the quantitative revolut ...
2014-2-21 22:21
19th century
By the 18th century, geography had become recognized as a discrete discipline and became part of a typical university curriculum in Europe (especially Paris and Berlin), although not in the United Kin ...
2014-2-21 22:21
Early modern period
Following the journeys of Marco Polo, interest in geography spread throughout Europe. From around c. 1400, the writings of Ptolemy and his successors provided a systematic framework to tie together an ...
2014-2-21 22:20
Medieval Europe
During the Early Middle Ages, geographical knowledge in Europe regressed (though it is a popular misconception that they thought the world was flat), and the simple T and O map became the standard dep ...
2014-2-21 22:20
Persia/Iran
In the latter 7th century, adherents of the new religion of Islam surged northward out of Arabia taking over lands in which Jews, Byzantine Christians and Persian Zoroastrians had been established for ...
2014-2-21 22:20
Byzantine Empire and Syria
After the fall of the western Roman Empire, the Eastern Roman Empire, ruled from Constantinople and known as the Byzantine Empire, continued to thrive and produced several noteworthy geographers. Step ...
2014-2-21 22:19
China
In China, the earliest known geographical Chinese writing dates back to the 5th century BC, during the beginning of the Warring States period (481 BC – 221 BC). This work was the Yu Gong ('Tribute of ...
2014-2-21 22:19
Late Medieval period
The Mughal chronicles Tuzuk-i-Jehangiri, Ain-i-Akbari and Dastur-ul-aml contain detailed geographical narratives. These were based on the earlier geographical works of India and the advances made by m ...
2014-2-21 22:19
Early Medieval period
The Vishnudharmottara Purana (compiled between 300-350 AD) contains six chapters on physical and human geography. The locational attributes of peoples and places, and various seasons are the topics of ...
2014-2-21 22:18
Ancient period
The geographers of ancient India put forward theories regarding the origin of the earth. They theorized that the earth was formed by the solidification of gaseous matter and that the earth's crust is ...
2014-2-21 22:18
India
A vast corpus of Indian texts embraced the study of geography. The Vedas and Puranas contain elaborate descriptions of rivers and mountains and treat the relationship between physical and human elemen ...
2014-2-21 22:17
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