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滑翔伞适航性的定期检测

2015-5-24 17:31| 发布者: jack| 查看: 1252| 评论: 0|原作者: 猎人

摘要: 借鉴一下伞厂相关的检测指导文档,可以在一定程度上为自行检测提供一些参考和便利。伞友小静爱心翻译了一个相关的文档,现在由我代发上来,希望对大家有所帮助。 因为事关自己的生命安全,头上的伞适航性如何还是 ...


借鉴一下伞厂相关的检测指导文档,可以在一定程度上为自行检测提供一些参考和便利。伞友小静爱心翻译了一个相关的文档,现在由我代发上来,希望对大家有所帮助。


因为事关自己的生命安全,头上的伞适航性如何还是应该认真关注的。随着飞行时间的累积,材料的退化和磨损会对适航性造成影响,但到底影响有多大,是否已经构成了安全隐患,除了经验最好还是有科学、严谨的评估手段。


Inspection Instructions
滑翔伞检测指南

VERY IMPORTANT !
重要提示!

Please read the following instructions carefully before you carry out your own
inspections and/or repairs to your glider. They contain information on the conditions and requirements for you to carry out your own 2-year inspection.
在检测或维修你的滑翔伞前,请仔细阅读以下说明。说明内容包含对伞具进行2年检测的条件和要求。

Under the new DHV / OeAeC* regulations, the customer (paraglider owner) may carry out his/her own 2-year inspection of the glider, following these instructions and using any documents and equipment necessary. The paraglider does not need to be returned to the manufacturer.
根据新的DHV / OeAeC*规定,客户(滑翔伞使用者)可每2年自行检测其滑翔伞,必要时请遵循以下说明或使用其他文档及设备。滑翔伞不必返厂。

The 2-year inspection may only be carried out by the paraglider owner him/herself, provided that he/she meets the requirements below, or by the manufacturer and its authorised inspectors. The manufacturer can tell you who the authorised inspectors are.
2年检测仅限于滑翔伞使用者本人,或由其厂商或厂商授权人员。厂商可以告知指定授权人。

The paraglider owner must be aware of the responsibility he/she is taking on by carrying out his/her own 2-year inspection of the glider. Such an inspection will only have legal effect if, after the inspection, it is certified with date, name (in block letters) and signature on or next to the DHV certification label.
滑翔伞使用者必须意识到自行进行2年检测的责任。一旦在检测后,在DHV认证标签上签上检测日期、名字(正楷填写),这样的检测就具有法律效力。

You should find out from your insurance company in good time whether there are any advantages or disadvantages under insurance law in carrying out your own 2-year inspection.
你应从你的保险公司及时的了解,根据保险法,自行完成2年检测是否有任何的优势或不利影响。

An inspection is only valid if the inspection report has been completed in full. You should also find out from the manufacturer before the inspection if any changes have been made to the inspection instructions.
检测报告只有在全部填写完成之后才会被确认为有效,你也应该在检测前从厂商了解下检测说明是否有任何变动。

Important: Certain documents and equipment are necessary for the inspection. If the costs entailed are too high for the paraglider owner, the glider should be sent to the manufacturer for inspection.
重要提示:对于检测而言,一些文件和设备是十分必要的。如果认为自行检测费用过高,可返厂检测。

Swing GmbH assumes no liability for and does not provide any warranty for
any 2-year inspection which it did not carry out itself.
对于非Swing公司做出的2年检测,Swing公司不承担任何责任,也不提供任何质保。

Instructions as at 27.07.2006
27.07.2006版说明
*German Hang-gliding and Paragliding Association/Austrian Aero Club
德国三角翼及滑翔伞协会/奥地利航空俱乐部

Manual Version from 15.12.2011
15.12.2011版手册



PROCEDURE:
步骤:

What must be inspected and when
检测必备内容及时间

Regular inspections under aircraft inspection regulations for paragliders.
The following table shows the inspection periods which must be observed. Ground handling hours should be doubled when calculating the number of flight hours.
滑翔伞的定期检测遵循航空器材的检测规定。
下图所示为必须遵守的检测周期。地面斗伞时间在计算飞行小时数时应加倍。

The manufacturer should be notified immediately if there is any abnormal flight behaviour and,
if necessary, the glider must be returned for inspection.
如有任何非常规飞行动作应立即通知厂商,必要时返厂检测。


Who can carry out the inspection?
谁可以进行检测?

Apart from the manufacturer or an inspection centre or person authorised by the manufacturer, only the owner of the paraglider may carry out the 2-year inspection. The owner must meet the requirements below.
除了厂商、检测中心或者厂家授权人员,只有滑翔伞持有人才能进行2年检测。持有人必须符合以下要求。

Requirements for the inspection
检测要求

Requirements for the inspection of solo paragliders which are exclusively for personal use:
仅供个人使用的单人滑翔伞检测要求:
1.        A current unrestricted licence for paragliders/hang-gliders or other equivalent licence.
拥有有效的滑翔伞/三角翼或其他装备的执照。
2. Adequate relevant instruction by the manufacturer or importer.
   经过厂家或经销商的相关指导。
3. Note: if a glider is inspected solely for personal use, then it may not be used by any other third person.
  提示:如果是持有人针对个人使用所进行的检测,那么该滑翔伞不应当被其他人使用。
Requirements for the inspection of tandem gliders and gliders which are used by third persons:
双人伞及被第三人使用的滑翔伞检测要求:
1.        Appropriate training to carry out an inspection.
适当的检测培训。
2.        Two years' professional experience in the manufacture or maintenance of paragliders and hanggliders or a technically similar activity. Of that time, 6 months within the last 2 years must have been with a manufacturer of aviation equipment.
两年的滑翔伞制造商从业经验或者滑翔伞及三角翼维护经验。在最近的两年中至少有六个月从业于航空设备制造商。
3.        Adequate relevant instruction for at least two weeks by the manufacturer or importer.
至少经过厂家或经销商两周以上的相关指导。
4.        Relevant introduction to each type of equipment – this must be renewed every year.
每种设备的相关说明——必须每年更新。

Documents and equipment necessary:
必要的文件和设备

gauge, preferably Kretschmer, and operating instructions,
量尺,最好是Kretschmer及使用说明书
Bettsometer (tear resistance tester) and operating instructions,
  Bettsometer(抗撕裂试验机)及使用说明
the manufacturer's maintenance instructions,
  厂商维护说明书
airworthiness instructions for the particular piece of equipment,
  设备特定部分的适航性检测指令
aviation equipment reference sheet (see operating instructions),
  航空设备参考表(详见使用说明书)
table showing line lengths (see operating instructions),
  显示伞绳长度的表格(详见使用说明书)
previous inspection reports (if available),
  之前的检测报告(如有必要)
inspection report (copy) for the records.
  检测报告记录(复印件)

The following procedure should be followed for the inspection:
以下是检测步骤:

Identify the equipment:
认识装备:
Canopy: inspect the top surface, bottom surface and seams for holes, tears, worn areas, any
stretches and porosity. Inspect the ribs
伞衣:检测上翼面,下翼面及接缝处是否有洞孔,撕裂,损坏的区域,任何延伸和气密性。检查翼肋。
Connections: inspect the risers and quick links
链接:检查组带及快挂扣
Lines: check the line breaking strength, line lengths and line fastenings
伞绳:检查伞绳的抗断强度,伞绳长度及伞绳连接件
Visual inspection of trim and adjustment: check the brake lines
视觉检查和调整:检查刹车绳
Description of material and technical information
材料和技术信息的描述
Other
其他
Inspections carried out: record results in the inspection report (see attachment) and sign the
Paraglider
检测:记录检测报告结果(详见附件)并在滑翔伞上标注


1.        Identify the equipment:
认识装备
Identify the equipment from the DHV certification label and the labelling on the paraglider and usin the manufacturer's documentation.
通过DHV认证标签和滑翔伞上的标签以及运用厂商的文档来了解装备。
Do you have the paraglider details and DHV certification and are they legible and correct?
If not, contact the manufacturer or dealer.
是否有伞具的细节参数和DHV认证,且清晰及正确?
如果没有,向厂商及经销商索取。

2.        Canopy:
伞衣
Inspect the top surface, bottom surface and seams for:
检查上翼面,下翼面及接缝处:
2.1. Porosity 气密性
2.2. Tear resistance 抗撕强度
2.3. Holes / tears 破洞/撕裂处
2.4. Worn areas and any stretches 磨损部分及变形
2.5. Inspect the ribs 检查翼肋

2.1.        Measuring the porosity of the canopy:
测量伞衣的气密性
The porosity of the following parts of the canopy must be read and the results recorded in the inspection report. Note which measuring instrument is used (and follow the instructions). The measuring instruments must be re-calibrated annually by the manufacturer.
伞翼以下部分的气密性必须阅读并记录检测结果。注意其测量仪器的使用(按照说明进行操作)。测量仪器必须每年由厂商重新校准。


The air permeability should be higher than the readings in the chart, at each of the areas where measurements are taken (see below). The paraglider must be returned to the manufacturer if the readings are poor (e.g. less than 8 on the JDC).
每一个被测量区域的透气性参数必须比图表的参数高(详见下图)。如果参数低,那么滑翔伞必须返厂。(比如,小于JDC数值8)

Areas where measurements should be taken:
该测量哪里:
Carry out the inspections on both the top surface and bottom surface of the glider:
上翼面和下翼面都需要检测:
1)        Middle cell, approx. 20 - 30 cm from the leading edge
中间的气室,距前缘大约20-30cm处
2)        Fifth cell to the left/right, approx. 20 – 30 cm from the leading edge
左右两侧第5个气室,距前缘大约20-30cm处
3)        Tenth cell to the left/right, approx. 20 – 30 cm from the leading edge.
左右两侧第10个气室,距前缘大约20-30cm处
Record the readings in the inspection report.
记录检测数据
The following readings apply to Swing gliders:
以下数据适用于Swing滑翔伞:



Caution: Gliders with less than 8 secs. on the JDC porosimeter should be inspected after use. If the reading is less than 2 secs., the glider should be declared no longer airworthy.
注意:JDC孔隙率低于8的滑翔伞在使用后需要检测。如果数值低于2,说明滑翔伞不适合飞行。

2.2.        Check the tear resistance:
检查抗撕强度
The Bettsometer (B.M.A.A. approved Patent Nr. GB 2270768 Clive Betts Sales) is used for this. See the instructions for how to carry out the inspection:
织物降解测试仪(B.M.A.A认证,,认证号GB2270768 Clive Betts销售)就是用来测试抗撕强度的。查看说明书进行检测。
Bettsometer:织物降解测试仪通常用于测量或对飞行装备和相关缝合的完整性。

Make a needle hole on the top surface and the bottom surface, where the A-line attachment points are, and test the tear resistance. The limit for the measurement is 500g and a tear of < 5 mm in length.
在A组组带连接处的上翼面和下翼面做一个针洞,并测试抗撕裂程度。测量的极限是500g撕裂长度小于5mm。

The reading given is recorded in the inspection report.
得出的数据记录在检测报告中。

2.3.        Holes / tears
破洞/撕裂处
A thorough visual check of the top surface and the bottom surface, panel by panel, from the leading edge to the trailing edge must be carried out, checking the following points:
对上翼面和下翼面做一全面的检查,一幅一幅的检查,从前缘到后缘,检查如下重点:
1.        Are there any holes, small holes or larger tears, worn areas or stretches?
是否有任何破洞,小洞或者大的撕裂,破损部位或变形?
2.        Can you see any defects in the coating?
是否能看见任何涂层的缺陷?
3.        Can you see anything else conspicuous e.g. areas which have already been repaired?
是否能看见其他任何缺陷,比如更换过的部分?
If the answer to 1) or 2) is 'yes', then the glider must be returned to the manufacturer.
如果有一两处“是”,那么滑翔伞需要返厂。

2.4.        Worn areas and stretches
磨损部分及变形
After the visual inspection:
目视检查后:
If there are any large or major areas of wear or any stretches, then the panel must be replaced by the manufacturer.
如果有任何较大或主要区域破损或任何变形,那么应该返厂更换整幅幅面。

2.5.        Checking the ribs
检查翼肋
Working from one side of the glider to the other, from the leading edge to the trailing edge, check whether the inside seams, cell walls and reinforcement are in good condition i.e. free from tears, stretches, worn areas, damage to the coating.
从一面倒另一面,从前缘到后缘,检查內缝,翼肋及加强筋是否情况良好,也就是没有撕裂、变形、破损部分及损害的涂层。
The glider must be returned to the manufacturer or authorised inspector if any ribs are torn or if any inside stitching is weak, loose or missing. Record the result in the inspection report.
如果滑翔伞有任何翼肋的破损或任何不牢固的、松动的或丢失的内部接缝,那么滑翔伞必须返厂或返回给授权的检测人员。在检测报告中记录结果。

3.        Connections:
链接
Inspect the risers and quick links
检查组带和快挂扣
Are there any worn areas, kinks, tears, signs of heavy wear and tear?
是否有任何破损部分,打结,开线,严重磨损和撕裂的迹象?
Is all the stitching firm?
所有的接缝是否坚固?
Can the speed bar move and is it intact?
  加速棒是否能移动,并且加速棒是否完好?
Are the brake handles still sewed on firmly?
  刹车手柄是否连接牢固?
Are the quick links free from rust and can the threads be loosened and tightened?
  快挂扣是否生锈,螺纹太松还是太紧?
Do the A, B, C, and D riser lengths and the acceleration distance correspond?
  A,B,C和D组组带长度及加速长度是否正确

Take the measurements using a weight of 5 daN (deca-Newtons). The values given should be compared with the details in the DHV certificate and recorded in the inspection report. Permissible variations (tolerance) can be found in the manufacturer's instructions (inspection and service record).
测量时使用5daN的力。给出的数值应该与DHV认证的数据项比较并记录在检测报告。
在厂商的说明(测试报告和使用记录)中允许偏差。
1daN=10N(牛顿)

If the riser or any part of it is defective, order an original part from the manufacturer and replace it.
如果组带或任何部分有缺陷,在厂商订购原装并替换。

4.        Lines
伞绳
4.1        Inspect the line strength
检查伞绳的长度
Select the line: Select a centre A, B, C and D-main line and check it for its breaking strength. To further inspect line breaking strength, brake an A, B and C line from the middle and upper cascade lines.
检查伞绳:选择A,B,C和D组的主要伞绳,测试它的断裂强度。为了更进一步的检查伞绳的断裂强度,从伞绳的中间和上部拉动A,B,C和D组伞绳。
Stroke speed
of the cylinder: v = 30 cm/min.

Breaking strength values: These values vary according to the model of paraglider and size. The correct values are given in the glider’s inspection and service record. Higher values have applied with Swing since 22.04.2004. For A and B lines, 10g and 8g are used, and for C and D lines, 8g and 6g are used. The lines are acceptable if the values are above the upper limit (10g). The glider should be inspected soon if between the upper limits (10g or 8g) and the lower limits (8g or 6g). If the braking values are lower than the lower limits, the cascade in question must be replaced. In any event, all lines must hold at least 25kg irrespective of the “g” load.
断裂强度值:这些值是根据滑翔伞的型号及大小而异。准确的数值在滑翔伞的检测报告及维修手册中给出。自2004年4月22日起Swing使用高断裂强度数值的伞绳。A和B组伞绳为例,使用10g和8g,并且对于C和D线,使用8g和6g。断裂强度值超过上限(10g)的伞绳也是可以接受的。如果滑翔伞在上限(10g或8g)和下限(8g或6g)之间,那么应该尽快检查。如果刹车绳小于最低值,那么整根刹车绳都需要更换。在任何情况下,所有伞绳必须至少能够承受25KG的“G”负荷。
If the lines tested do not pass these tests, they must be replaced with new original lines. All lines replaced are marked with a black pen near the attachment (seam) and recorded in the test log with the date they were replaced and the glider's flight hours. At the next inspection, an original neighbouring line is used to test the line strength. The values given are recorded in the inspection report.
如果伞绳没有通过这些测试,那么应该用全新的原厂伞绳替换。所有更换的伞绳都用黑色记号笔在连接处做记号,并在测试日志中记录更换时间及飞行小时数。在下一检查时,原来相邻的伞绳用来测试强度。给出的值记录在检查报告中。

4.2. Inspect the line lengths and line attachments
检查伞绳长度及连接处
Starting at the middle and working towards the outside, visually inspect the main lines, cascade lines and brake lines for damage to the sheath, kinks and worn areas. Start with the A-lines, then the Blines etc.
从中间开始检查,一直到最外侧,检查最主要的伞绳,伞绳及刹车声的包皮是否受损,是否打结或破损部分。从A组开始,然后是B组,等。

Are all the lines adequately sewn into the line attachments and suitable for use?
  所有伞绳和伞绳的连接处是否适合使用?
Are the line sheaths in good condition?
  所有伞绳的包皮是否情况良好?
Are all loops, knots and stitching in good condition?
  所有的连接环,结点,接缝是否情况良好?
Are the quick links done up tightly?
  快挂扣是否锁紧?
Are there any worn areas?
  是否有任何破损部分?
Record the results in the inspection report.
将结果记录在检测报告中

Measure the line lengths:
检查伞绳长度
Measuring the line lengths is part of the regular check.
检查伞绳长度是常规检查的一部分。
The lines must be measured with a 5 kg weight so that the results are comparable. You will find the corresponding line lengths under "Inspection and service record". The DHV-method is used for taking the measurement, i.e. from the line loop to the canopy. The DHV line numbering starts from the stabiliser and goes to the middle. To measure the opposite side of the wing, a symmetrical comparison can be made, following the same procedure.
该线必须用5公斤重做测试,这样得出的结果才能对比。你会发现在“检测报告和服务手册”中找到相应的长度。该DHV-方法用于进行测量,从伞绳到伞衣。所述DHV数值从平衡绳(开始数到)到中间。为了测量另一侧的伞翼,遵循同样的步奏,可做一个对称的比较。

The result is recorded in the inspection report and compared with the target line lengths in the DHV certificate. The tolerance for the line lengths differs from one line to the next - see attachment.
记录在检查报告的结果与DHV认证的目标长度做比较。不同伞绳的允许误差是不同的——详见附件。

If a line is faulty it must be replaced immediately. Find the description of the line in the line plan, order it from the manufacturer and then replace the old line.
如果伞绳出现问题,必须立即更换。在伞绳的平面图中找到编号,从厂家订货并替换掉旧的伞绳。

5. Visual inspection of trim and adjustment:
视觉检查及调整
Lay out and inflate the glider. Carry out a visual inspection of the canopy and lines before the test flight. In particular, check the length of the brake lines on an inflated glider. A test flight should not be carried out until there are no concerns about whether the brake lines have been correctly set up.
使伞衣充气,在测试飞行前检查伞衣和伞绳。尤其检查充气后滑翔伞的刹车长度。在确认刹车是否正确 前不要测试飞行。

6. Description of material and technical information:
材料和技术信息的描述
See inspection and service record.
查看检测报告及维修记录

7.        Other  
其他
Full details of all measurements taken and repairs to the paraglider must be recorded in the inspection report. The inspection report and/or record of measurements must be signed and dated (and the place given). They must be kept for 4 years.
所有的检测及维修详情都应记录在检测报告里。检测报告或测量结果必须签署姓名及日期(及测试地点),并保存4年以上。


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  • 玩玩热气球飞行
  • 四眼沟飞行
  • 一个人去飞翔
  • 动力伞处飞
  • 飞行于兴隆山起飞场
  • 一个人的旅行
  • 我在户外玩飞翔
  • 飞行在天上人间
  • 世界那么大,我想换个角度看看
  • 学滑翔伞
南瓮河湿地低空飞翔
南瓮河湿地低空飞翔
乘坐加拿大生产的“小松鼠”直升机在天空上翱翔,在感受飞行的畅快,惊险、刺激的同时
瓦屋山任你飞
瓦屋山任你飞
海阔凭你跃,天高任你飞..... 看得到吗?停住在我窗边那只会飞的思念,它和我的心一样,
王辰雨天上自由飞翔
王辰雨天上自由飞翔
蓝天是鸟儿们的天空,而我,也有一片属于我自己的天空... 在天空自由飞翔,晨光的灿

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